CORIANDRUM SATIVUM = CORIANDRUM VULGARE
Coriander in English, coriandre in French and cilandro in Spanish, is a small herbaceous plant, generally cultivated, probably native to the Middle East and also found in the wild in many parts of the Mediterranean regions.
This small "Umbellifer" is grown in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere and is part of the Asian and Indian culinary tradition.
The light green leaves, alternate, are cut (pennatiséquées), the inflorescence of white flowers is in umbel.
The fruits are small spheres of 3 to 6 mm that contain two contiguous seeds (diakene).
Green fruits turn yellow or brown when they are ripe and dry.
All parts of the coriander are aromatic: leaves, roots and fruits (or seeds).
Herbal medicine uses seeds (especially for their essential oil content) and to a lesser extent leaves and roots.
COMPOSITION CHIMIQUE ET PROPRIETES
Like many green and fresh vegetables the coriander leaf contains:
- carotenoid pigments (provitamin A),
- antioxidant flavonoids,
- water-soluble vitamins: especially Vitamin C and K,
- antioxidant phenolic acids.
There are no toxic alkaloids but a little essential oil dominated by cyclododecanol (about 20%), tetradecanal (about 17%), 2-dodecenal (about 10%), 1-decanol (about 7%) .
The leaves when they are wrinkled release aldehydes from the essential oil which have a very marked smell, rather unpleasant, generally evoking bugs.
Not everyone is repelled by this smell, genetics may explain this difference in behavior but this theory seems now abandoned.
It is rather the cerebral interpretation of the olfactory message which seems to vary according to the people, one can thus educate one's brain and learn to appreciate the coriander (as one "learns" to like the fermented cheeses, the nuoc-mam or the bitter vegetables !!).
ROOT and STEM
The roots exhale an odor even stronger than the leaves.
The stems contain an essential oil different from the leaves and fruits, dominated by phytol (about 60%).
The fruits (or seeds), by their content in essential oil, are the truly medicinal part, but only when they are dry.
The essential oil of coriander fruits contains:
- 60 to 70% of linalool, in the form of the S-enantiomer with a sweet and floral fragrance (linalool in its R-form is not present in coriander, it is found in lavender, its odor is different),
- variable percentages of alpha-pinene (0-6%), gamma-terpinene (0-4%), limonene (0-4%) and sometimes camphor (0-10%).
- The fruits also contain reserve substances : 20% of lipids and 15% of proteins.
The essential oil of coriander is:
- antibacterial and antifungal, and probably antiviral:
Many studies confirm this antibiotic property against collibacils, salmonella, staphylococci and streptococci including those resistant to certain antibiotics, as well as against candida albicans (mycosis) and Campylobacter jejuni (responsible for food poisoning) to mention some of the sensitive microoganisms.
- Anti-spasmodic (lifts the spasm of smooth fibers) of the digestive sphere.
- Promotes appetite and good digestion.
- Slightly analgesic (pain reliever).
- It is an essential oil well tolerated by the skin and with a pleasant scent.
- Like many essential oils it is both a tonic and a euphoric, but it can also calm or promote sleep (which is paradoxical for a tonic substance), it is according to the dose and the personal response of the central nervous system system.
The main ingredient linalool of coriander essential oil oxidizes in the air and produces secondary compounds that can cause allergic reactions.
It is therefore necessary to close the bottle of coriander essential oil and keep it in a colored glass bottle and cool (this is also a valid precaution for the majority of essential oils).
CORIANDER ESSENTIAL OIL:
- A very useful oil to relieve some minor digestive disorders: dyspeptia, cramp or digestive spasm, bloating, lack of appetite.
- But also in case of digestive infection: infectious gastritis, diarrhea, food poisoning of the turista kind.
example of dosage:
2 drops 3 to 4 times a day in honey, milk or on bread for example.
Although not very toxic, this essential oil is nevertheless not recommended in pregnant women especially during the first months of pregnancy.
JOINT OR MUSCLE PAIN
Massage or gentle rubbing on painful areas diluted 1/5 in vegetable oil or massage balm (example: 20 drops of essential oil, 80 drops of sweet almond oil or coconut)
The essential oil of coriander fruit is generally well tolerated at dilutions of 0.5 to 1% in dermatological preparations, creams or lotions.
It can be used in case of chronic infection of the skin, such as acne or certain infections with staphylococcus aureus, which makes it possible to avoid antibiotics (very often ineffective and whose uncontrolled use increases the risk of appearance of bacterial resistance).
FOOD CONSERVATION and COSMETIC PRODUCTS
The low toxicity of the coriander essential oil and its antibacterial power make it useful in the food industry to help preserve food: meat, sausages and perhaps bakery-pastry.
It perfumes many cosmetic products like lavender.
The dried fruit or coriander seed is a spice or seasoning widely used in oriental cuisine, especially in CURRY POWDER that contains 30 to 40%.
The coriander seed can be roasted lightly before grinding, increasing its aroma.
Putting coriander powder in a dish makes it easier to digest, especially when mixed with turmeric powder.
CORIANDER LEAVES AND ROOTS
The fresh leaves are consumed all over the world, they flavor the raw vegetables and can be added to the hot dishes at the end of cooking.
Roots are mostly used in Asia.
Some studies have shown that regular consumption of coriander leaves can improve moderate type 2 diabetes.
People on anticoagulant therapy should consider vitamin K intake.
People can be allergic to raw coriander (in this case to many other plants and pollen), the risk of allergy is linked to the existence of proteins that are destroyed by heat and that do not exist in the essential oil..
CORIANDER CULTIVATIONCoriander is very easily grown in most countries.
CORIANDER SPICE AND MEDICINAL PLANT
The dry fruit of coriander, which is one third of the composition of curry powder, contains an essential oil with a pleasant odor, well tolerated by the body and which has antibacterial, antifungal and regulating properties of the digestive system.
The fresh leaf of coriander flavored salads and many dishes of oriental cuisine..
Copyright 2019 : Dr Jean-Michel Hurtel