Anacardiaceae are trees or shrubs with resinous latex, often strongly smelling turpentine, hence their former name, terebinthacées..
This family includes about sixty genera and less than 500 species.
Many are exploited for their fruit( mango, cashew nut) or to provide tannin (quebracho from South America) or different resins( lentisque pistachio, Bombay mastic).
There are also anacardiaceae that are best avoided, they cause severe skin irritation: "renga" of Malaysia, "poison ivy" of North America.
The mango tree is native to the forests of the Indo-Burman region, it is cultivated in the Indian subcontinent for several thousand years, the Portuguese introduced it in Africa and America in the 18th century, finally in the 20th century it was successfully spread in all tropical countries.
Mangifera indica, the mango tree is a tree that can not stand frost.
Since then, it has naturalized and sometimes survives in the middle of the equatorial forest signaling the establishment of old villages (gold diggers, Amerindians).
COMPOSITION CHIMIQUE ET PROPRIETES
MANGO is a big-bodied drupe, it is sometimes called the apple of the tropics, there are many varieties, some almost inedible, full of fiber and with a strong taste (smell) of turpentine, other are perfectly delicious.
The smell of turpentine is due to terpenoid mainly myrcene and ocimene.
The "skin" (pericarp) of mangoes sometimes contains (it depends on varieties) a chemical compound irritant or allergenic (urushiol) as well as an oleoresin with strong smell of therebenhine.
Here is an average chemical composition of the mature mango pulp: 82% water, 0.7% protein, 0.2% lipid, 17% carbohydrate, 190 micrograms / 100g vitamin A expressed as retinol, 40 at 60 mg / 100g of vitamin C.
Green MANGO contains less provitamin A and less digestible carbohydrates but a little more vitamin C.
The leaves and especially the bark of the mango tree contain phenolic compounds including tannins.
Among the phenolic derivatives found in the mango leaf, there is an abundance of a yellow pigment (Indian yellow), mangiferin.
Mangiferin is a xanthone; xanthones are substances with untapped therapeutic potential: monoaminoxidase inhibitor, central nervous system stimulant, antibacterial and fungicide, interacting in the inflammatory reaction.
The mango kernel contains carbohydrates (eatable in case of famine!) But also tannin that makes it difficult to digest.
The mango kernel contains about 10% protein and about 10% lipids (fat) extractable by pressure or chemically (extraction with hexane as many commercial edible oils).
Average chemical composition of this MANGO KERNEL OIL:
palmitic acid: 5 to 8%,
stearic acid: 42 to 48%,
oleic acid: 35 to 42%,
Therefore an oil without great dietary quality nevertheless edible and with cosmetological properties.
THE MANGO FRUIT :
Mango is a very interesting fruit as a source of vitamin A and provitamin A, vitamin C and simple sugars.
The mango juice can incorporated into the diet of the weaning baby.
The green mango salad provides vitamin C and aroma but is a little difficult to digest (one get used to it).
The majority of mangoes contain cellulosic fibers that regulate the intestinal transit and thus help to fight constipation and at the same time reducing also the intestinal absorption of cholesterol.
MANGO TREE BARK :
The decoction of bark containing a lot of tannin is astringent, it can cure simple diarrhea: a piece of bark well cleaned 10cm by 10 cm in 1 liter of water, boil 10 minutes, 1 glass 2 to 3 times per day.
This liquid is useful for washing wounds, burns, control infections or genital irritation (vulvo-vaginitis, leucorrhea), and as a gargle or mouthwash to cure mouth sores or mouth ulcers.
The decoction of leaves (eg, a handful of leaves in a liter of water, 10 minutes of boiling) is less astringent .
The infusion of young leaves and flowers (eg, 2 to 3 young leaves and some flowers in a liter of boiling water, 1 glass 2 to 3 times a day was recommended in the West Indies to reduce fever and fight urinary tract infections .
Laboratory experiments show that the aqueous extract of bark powder is anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and hypoglycaemic. The observed effect follows the increasing dose of absorbed extract (between 50 and 800 mg / kg in an Indian study).
This corroborates the traditional use of mango bark in painful phenomena of inflammatory origin (rheumatoid arthritis for example) and to control type 2 diabetes.
Moreover in Cuba you can find the "VIMANG" an aqueous extract of mango bark that is commonly used.
A 2001 Chilean study confirmed the anti-inflammatory and anti-pain properties of this extract "Vimang": average effective dose 54 mg / kg.
A Cuban study with volunteers shows that VIMANG significantly improves the symptoms observed in patients with type 2 diabetes, asthmatics, prostate adenoma , and with different skin diseases (psoriasis, lupus).
This study of several hundred volunteers shows that taking this extract of mango bark (vimang) also improves the comfort of life of people suffering from cancer.
The desiccated and pulverized nucleus(kernel) is an old intestinal pest remedy (1/2 to 1 teaspoonful in jam, it is very bitter).
More anecdotally, Hindus used to collect urine of cows who ate mango leaves to tint in yellow cotton materials ! The unfortunate cows did not always survive the test because the xanthones (yellow) present in the leaves are toxic at high doses.
Finally the mango tree becomes a large tree with an imposing trunk whose wood is excellent to built boats and canoes or to make big carvings.
THE MANGO, APPLE OF THE TROPICS
The mango tree is a large tree native to India whose juicy and sweet fruits, full of vitamin C and A and that can regulate the intestinal transit.
All parts of the tree are used in traditional medicines and recently pharmacological and clinical studies have confirmed the anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties of mango tree bark extracts.