= ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS
Rosemary is a Mediterranean plant.
It is a shrub, quite bushy, with small and narrow leaves with their upper surface convex a little shiny, the interior concave and white.
The flowers are discreet, purple, sometimes lighter or even white, typically bilabiate with two clearly visible stamens.
Like thyme or mint, rosemary is now widespread in many countries with temperate, subtropical and even tropical climates.
ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis with white flowers
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES
The very particular smell of rosemary, slightly camphorated but softened by a pine scent, is of its the essential oil present in the leaves.
It is found from 1 to 2% depending on the cultivation conditions, a complex mixture dominated by cyclic monoterpenes (camphor 15% to 25%, cineole 15% to 30%, pinene 25%, borneol 15% to 20%).
We classically distinguish 3 types of essential oils according to their dominant component:
- The essential oil of rosemary with camphor contains about 20% of camphor and as much of 1-8 cineole (eucalyptol) and alpha-pinene.
- The essential oil of rosemary with cinèole (= eucalytol) which contains 50% of 1-8 cineole and 10% of camphor and alpha-pinene.
- Rosemary verbenone essential oil: the major constituent of which is in fact 25 to 30% alpha-pinene (chemical precursor of verbenone), approximately 10% of camphor and 8 to 10% of verbenone.
ROSEMARY ESSENTIAL OILS with camphor and verbenone
- are skin antiseptics,
- activate the functioning of the liver and biliary excretion,
- are anticatarrhals and antiseptics of the respiratory tract,
- are antispasmodic (spasmolytics) and muscle relaxants
- and stimulate the heart, breathing (camphor = analeptic cardio-respiratory) and the central nervous system (risk of hyperexcitation and insomnia).
BUT BE CAREFUL, essential oils with ketones (especially in rosemary, bicyclic monoterpene ketones) are known for their neurotoxicity and their ability to trigger an epileptic fit (epileptogenic) hence caution in their oral use.
ROSEMARY ESSENTIAL OIL with cineole
This rosemary essential oil:
- is an antiseptic for the respiratory tract and facilitates expectoration,
- is an antiseptic for the urinary tract and digestive disinfectant,
- it seems to reactivate the hair follicles, especially in the case of localized alopecia areata (localized alopecia = alopecia areata)
THE ROSEMARY LEAF
The leaf and flowering branches of rosemary also contain other very interesting components from a pharmacological point of view:
- rosmanol, carnosol and carnosic acid (phenolic diterpenes),
- flavonoids, phenol acids (in particular rosmarinic acid) ,
- triterpenes with a steroid structure (oleanic acid).
All these compounds are studied for their medicinal properties:
- anti-oxidant (scavengers of free radicals)
- protector of the hepatic cell
Rosmarinic, carnosic and carnosol acids, antioxidants, anti-inflammatories, protectors against cance
Rosmarinic acid is a powerful anti-oxidant scavenger of free radicals and is attributed to it an anti-viral and antibacterial power as well as an anxiolytic activity (by interaction in the metabolism of gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) at the like benzodiazepines such as librium or valium).
Experiments prove that rosmarinic acid is absorbed digestively and is found in the blood long enough to work before it is broken down and metabolized.
Carnosic acid is also very antioxidant and decreases the action of free radicals.
Carnosol is also antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, recent studies show that it is a substance which, when it is present in food on a regular basis (as in the countries around the Mediterranean), reduces the risk of development of many cancers; prostate, breast, skin, colon, leukemia.
Carnosol is perhaps a protector of neurons and it is possible that it thus delays the development of degenerative diseases of the brain including Alzheimer's disease
ROSEMARY EXTRACTS: alcoholic tincture and aqueous extract
The hydroalcoholic extract (ethanolic tincture) is cholagogue and hepatoprotective in vivo in rats (but at high dose) and, in vitro, scavenger of free radicals and hepatoprotective (anti-lipoperoxidant action, prevention of necrosis of isolated hepatocytes (liver cells).
The ethanolic tincture of young shoots of rosemary seems more effective than that of the whole adult plant.
Rosemary (hydroalcoholic extract and to a lesser extent its aqueous extract) is considered to be an effective drainer of the bile ducts, it is also a diuretic (aqueous extract).
ROSEMARY A MEDICINE FOR THE BILIARY TRACTRosemary is first and foremost a drug for the biliary tract and for disorders linked to a malfunction of the gallbladder: intolerance to fats, eggs, constipation or fatty diarrhea, slow digestion with headaches.
GENERAL STIMULATING ROSEMARYRosemary is also a general stimulant, especially through its essential oil to recommend in cases of asthenia, general fatigue or for the elderly: eg, 1 drop of essential oil of rosemary with cineole 3 to 4 times a day.
ROSEMARY AND ITS ESSENTIAL OILThe essential oil of rosemary with cineole:
ANTI OXIDIZING AND ANTI INFLAMMATORY ROSEMARY>The aqueous extract or the ethanolic tincture are useful by their anti-free radical power:
ROSEMARY IN FOODRosemary is a very popular and easy to find condiment, it can be added to many dishes but also in the cooking water of pasta, rice or vegetables, in high doses it can be a little bitter.
ROSEMARY EXTRACTS IN FOOD AND PERFUMESRosmarinic acid and carnosic acid are used as preservatives (anti-oxidants) in the food and cosmetic industries.
ROSEMARY CULTIVATIONRosemary is an easy to grow, very hardy, evergreen bushy plant that is drought tolerant but does not like cold, wet soils.
A CONDIMENT TO DRAIN THE BILIARY TRACT
Rosemary, with its aromatic foliage reminiscent of frankincense and pine, contains substances that facilitate the excretion of bile in the intestine, thus promoting the digestion of fats and intestinal transit.
Its essential oil is antibacterial, stimulating but can be toxic in exaggerated doses.
Rosemary contains substances with very interesting pharmacological potential and it is a plant to be used in food for its anti-free radical power..
Copyright 2021 : Dr Jean-Michel Hurtel